Research Article

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2010, 3(9): 643–652

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https://doi.org/10.1007/s12274-010-0024-6

Synthesis of Porous NiO Nanocrystals with Controllable Surface Area and Their Application as Supercapacitor Electrodes

Xiaojun Zhang1,2, Wenhui Shi1, Jixin Zhu1, Weiyun Zhao1, Jan Ma1, Subodh Mhaisalkar1,3, Tuti Lim Maria4,5, Yanhui Yang6, Hua Zhang1, Huey Hoon Hng1 (), and Qingyu Yan1,3 ()

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1 School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798, Singapore
2 College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000, China
3 Energy Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 637459, Singapore
4 School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798, Singapore
5 School of Life Sciences and Chemical Technology, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, 535 Clementi Road, Singapore
6 School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 637459, Singapore

Keywords: Ni(OH)2, NiO, porous nanocrystals, supercapacitor
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  • Abstract
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We report a facile way to grow various porous NiO nanostructures including nanoslices, nanoplates, and nanocolumns, which show a structure-dependence in their specific charge capacitances. The formation of controllable porosity is due to the dehydration and re-crystallization of β-Ni(OH)2 nanoplates synthesized by a hydrothermal process. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that the decomposition temperature of the β-Ni(OH)2 nanostructures is related to their morphology. In electrochemical tests, the porous NiO nanostructures show stable cycling performance with retention of specific capacitance over 1000 cycles. Interestingly, the formation of nanocolumns by the stacking of β-Ni(OH)2 nanoslices/plates favors the creation of small pores in the NiO nanocrystals obtained after annealing, and the surface area is over five times larger than that of NiO nanoslices and nanoplates. Consequently, the specific capacitance of the porous NiO nanocolumns (390 F/g) is significantly higher than that of the nanoslices (176 F/g) or nanoplates (285 F/g) at a discharge current of 5 A/g. This approach provides a clear illustration of the process–structure–property relationship in nanocrystal synthesis and potentially offers strategies to enhance the performance of supercapacitor electrodes.
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Synthesis of Porous NiO Nanocrystals with Controllable Surface Area and Their Application as Supercapacitor Electrodes. Nano Res. 2010, 3(9): 643–652 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12274-010-0024-6

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