Aifang Yu1,§, Ming Song1,§, Yan Zhang1, Yang Zhang1, Libo Chen1, Junyi Zhai1 (*), and Zhong Lin Wang1,2 (*)
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1 Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100083, China 2 School of Material Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, USA § Authors with equal contribution and authorship order determined by coin toss.
Keywords:triboelectric nanogenerator, self-powered acoustic source locator, underwater, three dimensional coordinate
Detecting/sensing targets underwater has very important applications in environmental study, civil engineering and national security. In this paper, an organic-film based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been successfully demonstrated for the first time as a self-powered and high sensitivity acoustic sensor to detect underwater targets at low frequencies around 100 Hz. This innovative, cost-effective, simple-design TENG consists of a thin-film-based Cu electrode and a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film with nanostructures on its surfaces. On the basis of the coupling effect between triboelectrification and electrostatic induction, the sensor generates electrical output signals in response to incident sound waves. Operating at a resonance frequency of 110 Hz, under an acoustic pressure of 144.2 dBSPL, the maximum open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current of the generator can respectively reach 65 V and 32 μA underwater. The directional dependence pattern has a bi-directional shape with a total response angle of 60°. Its sensitivity is higher than –185 dB in the frequency range from 30 Hz to 200 Hz. The highest sensitivity is –146 dB at resonance frequency. The three-dimensional coordinates of an acoustic source were identified by four TENGs, self-powered active sensors, and the location of the acoustic source was determined with an error about 0.2 m. This study not only expands the application fields of TENGs from the atmosphere to water, but also shows the TENG is a promising acoustic source locator in underwater environments.