The sensitive and on-site detection of inorganic explosives has raised seriousconcerns regarding public safety. However, high stability and non-volatilityfeatures currently limit their rapid on-site detection. Surface-enhanced Ramanspectroscopy (SERS) is emerging as a powerful technique for the trace-leveldetection of different molecules. Plasmonic Ag nanowires were produced bya hydrothermal synthesis method using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as anegatively charged stabilizer. Here, we report a rapid detection method forinorganic explosives based on a simple surface swab with a positively chargeddiethyldithiocarbamate-modified Ag nanowire membrane coupled with SERS.This membrane, serving as an excellent SERS substrate with high uniformity,stability, and reusability, can capture both typical oxidizers in inorganic explosivesand organic nitro-explosives, via electrostatic interaction. The detection levelof perchlorates (ClO4−), chlorates (ClO3−), nitrates (NO3−), picric acid, and 2,4-dinitrophenol is as high as 2.0, 1.7, 0.1, 45.8, and 36.6 ng, respectively. In addition,simulated typical inorganic explosives such as black powders, firecrackers, andmatch heads could also be detected. We believe that this membrane representsan attractive alternative for rapid on-site detection of inorganic explosives withhigh efficiency.