Surface functionalization is a widely adopted technique for surface modification
which allows researchers to customize surfaces to integrate with their research.
Surface functionalization has been used recently to adapt surfaces to integrate
with biological materials specifically to isolate cells or mimic biological tissues
through cell patterning. Cell isolation and cell patterning both can be integrated
with extant techniques or surfaces to customize the research to whatever
needs to be tested. Substrates such as metals, biologically mimicking surfaces,
environmental responsive surfaces, and even three-dimensional surfaces such
as hydrogels have all been adapted to allow for functionalization for both
patterning and isolation. In this review we have described both the advantages
and disadvantages of these techniques and the related chemistries to better
understand these tools and how best to apply them in the hope that we can
further expand upon the research in the field.