Research Article


2021, 14(4): 1156–1161


Visualizing nonlinear resonance in nanomechanical systems via single-electron tunneling

Xinhe Wang1,2,§, Lin Cong2,§, Dong Zhu3, Zi Yuan2, Xiaoyang Lin1, Weisheng Zhao1, Zaiqiao Bai4, Wenjie Liang5, Ximing Sun6, Guang-Wei Deng3,7 (✉), and Kaili Jiang2 (✉)

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1 Fert Beijing Research Institute, School of Microelectronics & Beijing Advanced Innovation Centre for Big Data and Brain Computing (BDBC), Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
2 State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Tsinghua-Foxconn Nanotechnology Research Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
3 Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, CAS, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China
4 Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
5 Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China
6 Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
7 Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, China
§ Xinhe Wang and Lin Cong contributed equally to this work.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, mechanical resonator, quantum dot, nonlinear, coupling
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  • Abstract
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Numerous reports have elucidated the importance of mechanical resonators comprising quantum-dot-embedded carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for studying the effects of single-electron transport. However, there is a need to investigate the single-electron transport that drives a large amplitude into a nonlinear regime. Herein, a CNT hybrid device has been investigated, which comprises a gate-defined quantum dot that is embedded into a mechanical resonator under strong actuation conditions. The Coulomb peak positions synchronously oscillate with the mechanical vibrations, enabling a single-electron “chopper” mode. Conversely, the vibration amplitude of the CNT versus its frequency can be directly visualized via detecting the time-averaged single-electron tunneling current. To understand this phenomenon, a general formula is derived for this time-averaged single-electron tunneling current, which agrees well with the experimental results. By using this visualization method, a variety of nonlinear motions of a CNT mechanical oscillator have been directly recorded, such as Duffing nonlinearity, parametric resonance, and double-, fractional-, mixed- frequency excitations. This approach opens up burgeoning opportunities for investigating and understanding the nonlinear motion of a nanomechanical system and its interactions with electron transport in quantum regimes.
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Visualizing nonlinear resonance in nanomechanical systems via single-electron tunneling. Nano Res. 2021, 14(4): 1156–1161

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