Review Article

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2021, 14(9): 2965–2980

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https://doi.org/10.1007/s12274-021-3428-6

Fundamental principles and development of proximity-field nanopatterning toward advanced 3D nanofabrication

Sang-Hyeon Nam1,§, Gayea Hyun1,§, Donghwi Cho1, Seonggon Han1, Gwangmin Bae1, Haomin Chen1,2, Kisun Kim1, Youngjin Ham1, Junyong Park3,4 (✉), and Seokwoo Jeon1,5 (✉)

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1 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea
2 Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
3 School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi, Gyeongbuk 39177, Republic of Korea
4 Department of Energy Engineering Convergence, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi, Gyeongbuk 39177, Republic of Korea
5 KAIST Institute for NanoCentury (KINC), KAIST, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea
§ Sang-Hyeon Nam and Gayea Hyun contributed equally to this work.

Keywords: proximity-field nanopatterning, three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures, phase mask, interference lithography
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  • Abstract
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Three-dimensional (3D) nanoarchitectures have offered unprecedented material performances in diverse applications like energy storages, catalysts, electronic, mechanical, and photonic devices. These outstanding performances are attributed to unusual material properties at the nanoscale, enormous surface areas, a geometrical uniqueness, and comparable feature sizes with optical wavelengths. For the practical use of the unusual nanoscale properties, there have been developments for macroscale fabrications of the 3D nanoarchitectures with process areas over centimeter scales. Among the many fabrication methods for 3D structures at the nanoscale, proximity-field nanopatterning (PnP) is one of the promising techniques that generates 3D optical holographic images and transforms them into material structures through a lithographic process. Using conformal and transparent phase masks as a key factor, the PnP process has advantages in terms of stability, uniformity, and reproducibility for 3D nanostructures with periods from 300 nm to several micrometers. Other merits of realizing precise 3D features with sub-100 nm and rapid processes are attributed to the interference of coherent light diffracted by phase masks. In this review, to report the overall progress of PnP from 2003, we present a comprehensive understanding of PnP, including its brief history, the fundamental principles, symmetry control of 3D nanoarchitectures, material issues for the phase masks, and the process area expansion to the wafer-scale for the target applications. Finally, technical challenges and prospects are discussed for further development and practical applications of the PnP technique.
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Fundamental principles and development of proximity-field nanopatterning toward advanced 3D nanofabrication. Nano Res. 2021, 14(9): 2965–2980 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12274-021-3428-6

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