Xiaogang Yang1,§ (✉), Yuanxing Wang2,§, Chang Ming Li1,3, and Dunwei Wang2 (✉)
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1 Institute of Materials Science and Devices, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215011, China 2 Department of Chemistry, Boston College, Merkert Chemistry Center, MA 02467, USA 3 Institute of Clean Energy & Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China § Xiaogang Yang and Yuanxing Wang contributed equally to this work.
Keywords:water oxidation, intermediate, rate-determining step, rate-law, Tafel analysis, density functional theory
Water oxidation, an essential step in photosynthesis, has attracted intense research attention. Understanding the reaction pathways
at the electrocatalyst/water interface is of great importance for the development of water oxidation catalysts. How the water is
oxidized on the electrocatalyst surface by the positive charges is still an open question. This review summarizes current advances
in studies on surface chemistry within the context of water oxidation, including the intermediates, reaction mechanisms, and their
influences on the reaction kinetics. The Tafel analyses of some electrocatalysts and the rate-laws relative to charge consumption
rates are also presented. Moreover, how the multiple charge transfer relies on the intermediate coverage and the accumulated
charge numbers is outlined. Lastly, the intermediates and rate-determining steps on some water oxidation catalysts are discussed
based on density functional theories.